Governments and Legislation

Karl Gruss, Freedom of Information Act and Federal Licensing Procedures: Invoking Exemption 7(F) to Protect Examination Materials

The United States Supreme Court’s 2011 decision in Milner v. Department of the Navy shut the door on an expansive interpretation of one of the nine enumerated exemptions to the public disclosure requirements mandated under the Freedom of Information Act. No longer can federal agencies seek cover behind the judicially crafted interpretation of Exemption 2 […]

Ellen English, “Camels Agree with your Throat" and Other Lies: Why Graphic Warnings are Necessary to Prevent Consumer Deception

The government’s latest attempt to protect consumers from the perils of tobacco use is in jeopardy. In 2009, Congress enacted the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act, which requires cigarette advertisements and packages to bear nine new textual health warnings and gives the FDA authority to regulate tobacco products. In 2011, in compliance with the Act, the FDA issued […]

Robert J. Pushaw, Jr., The Paradox of the Obamacare Decision: How Can the Federal Government have Limited Unlimited Power?

National Federation of Independent Business v. Sebelius, the Supreme Court’s decision upholding the landmark Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA or “Obamacare”), sets forth the most important judicial examination of constitutional power since the New Deal era. The political and media frenzy over the Obamacare case has obscured its actual legal analysis and larger constitutional implications, which warrant more reflective […]

Low Sanctions, High Costs: The Risk to Democratic Freedom

Cassandra Burke Robertson

Abstract Response to Irina D. Manta, The High Cost of Low Sanctions Professor Irina Manta deftly combines insights from behavioral economics, political theory, and legal analysis in her piece The High Cost of Low Sanctions. Her central argument is that a seemingly reasonable political compromise can backfire in troubling ways. Specifically, the decision to enact a framework […]

Googling Down the Cost of Low Sanctions

Gregory Dolin, M.D.

Abstract Response to Irina D. Manta, The High Cost of Low Sanctions When we as a society decide that a particular conduct is problematic, we are faced with a choice of how to prevent and punish such conduct. Generally speaking, the more problematic the conduct, the higher the sanction imposed as punishment and the more likely […]

Keeping Low Sanctions Low

Clark D. Asay

Abstract Response to Irina D. Manta, The High Cost of Low Sanctions In her thoughtful new article, The High Cost of Low Sanctions, Professor Irina D. Manta provides a useful analysis of the (often) unanticipated negative effects that low legal sanctions can have. While the presence of low legal sanctions may assuage the public’s concerns about any […]